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Antaimoro literally means People of the south. They are descendants from the Antalaotra and constitute about 3.4% of the population. The Antaimoro people live south of the Betsimisaraka people around Vohipeno and Manakara on the southeast coast of Madagascar. The Antaimoro were apparently the last significant arrivals to the island around the end of the 15th century, possibly from the Arabian peninsula. They maintain Islamic and Arabian traditions and wear amulets decorated with verses of the Koran. The tribe has a strong caste system. Men and women live strictly separated from each other and are even buried in separate graves. The tombs of the Antaimoro royal family can be seen in the village Ivato near Vohipeno.

Already long before the introduction of the Latin scripture by European missionaries, the Antaimoro had their own form of Arabic writing (sorabe). They are well known for their paper made of bamboo fiber, often decorated with pressed petals.

The Antaimoro have indepth knowledge of medicine and the supernatural. They are respected as well as feared for their magicians and magical powers.

Besides fishing, they grow rice, crops and are cattle farmers.