Tsingy de Bemaraha National Park

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The protected area of Tsingy de Bemaraha in the west of Madagascar consists of a national park and strict nature reserve. The site is unique with its biodiversity and exceptional landscape called the Tsingy - which can be translated into "where one can only walk on tiptoe". In 1990, Bemaraha was the first area in Madagascar to be classified a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and it also became a UNESCO National Cultural Heritage Site in 1991. Part of the reserve was changed to national park status in 1997.

Tsingy de Bemaraha IMG 4765.jpg
Tsingy de Bemaraha IMG 4638.jpg Tsingy de Bemaraha IMG 4591.jpg Tsingy de Bemaraha IMG 4926.jpg

Bemaraha National Park is located in the Melaky region in central west Madagascar, about 300km from Antananarivo as the crow flies. The park stretches over an area of 157,710ha, with a length of 100km from north to south and a width of 10 to 40km from east to west. The southern part with an area of 72,340ha enjoys the status of being a national park. The northern part, which is managed as an strict nature reserve, covers 85,370ha of land.

The protected area is located on the Bemaraha plateau at an altitude of 150 to 170m, a karst formation bounded to the east by steep cliffs and to the west by gentle slopes. South of the park, there is a formation of pinnacles where access is extremely difficult. In the north rolling hills alternate with limestone formations.

Tsingy de Bemaraha IMG 4938.jpg

The Bemaraha Park is located north of the Manombolo River. The rivers coming from the plateau have a seasonal or permanent character.

The Bemaraha Massif is a very rugged limestone massif with numerous caves and an impressive canyon carved by the Manambolo River. The western part of the plateau has a very sharp relief, covered in large parts by dense dry forest. This true limestone cathedral offers one of the most spectacular natural landscapes in the world! In the eastern part, the forest is intersected by savannas.

The karstic massif of Bemaraha offers a variety of natural habitats with many different ecosystems, such as dense deciduous forest, bushy xerophytic vegetation on the tsingy (limestone plateau) and sub-humid forest in the valleys or low-laying wet areas between limestone blocks as well as wooded or grassy savanna.

The park is home to lemurs, terrestrial and aquatic birds, bats, amphibians, reptiles, endemic mammals and at least 650 plant species.

The population is predominantly Sakalava, an ethnic group who live according their strict traditions protected by regulations using the fady (ban or taboo).

The park enjoys a dry tropical climate marked by two contrasting seasons: Rainy from November to April and dry from May to October. The opening of the park depends on the accessibility of the dirt road connecting Morondava and Bekopaka, usually from May to November. There are various ways to reach the park:

By car (4x4)

  • Antananarivo - Morondava (600km) and then Morondava - Belo sur Tsiribihina - Bekopaka (south entrance of the park): 200km along a dirt road, 4x4 is recommended for this 8 hours stretch with at least 1 hour by ferry along the Tsiribihina River (100km north of Morondava).
  • Antananarivo - Antsalova (700km): 200km paved road to Tsiroanomandidy, between Beravina and Morafeno (crossing of the Bongolava mountains) in very bad condition for over 80km. Thereafter Antsalova - Bekopaka: 100km secondary road, 4 hours by 4x4, usually accessible from May to November.

By taxi-brousse

  • Daily departure from Antananarivo (Fasan'ny Karana station), duration 2 days.

By boat

  • From Ankavandra 3 to 4 days by pirogue along the Manambolo River until Bekopaka. Ankavandra is only accessible by plane.
  • From Miandrivazo 3 days by motorised pirogue down the Tsiribihina River until reaching Belo sur Tsiribihina. Thereafter along the road: Belo sur Tsiribihina - Bekopaka (100km, 4 hours by 4x4).

By plane

Management and Classification

In 1927, thanks to the biological, geological and archaeological characteristics of the Antsingy, the area was classified as Nature Reserve No. 9. Thereafter it was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1990 and National Cultural Heritage Site in 1991. In August 1997, a part of the reserve was changed to national park status to allow the development of ecotourism.

Referring to the international classification of the protected area, following the categorisation by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the protected complex of Tsingy de Bemaraha belongs to Category I and II. In other words, it is classified as:

  • a terrestrial space comprising ecosystems, with remarkable or representative geological or physiological characteristics, managed mainly for the purpose of scientific research and/or environmental monitoring as a Strict Nature Reserve (Category I)
  • a natural terrestrial area, to protect ecological integrity of one or more ecosystems for the benefit of present and future generations, to ban any exploitation or occupation incompatible with the objectives of the designation and to offer the possibility to visit for spiritual purposes following tradition, for scientific, educational, recreational and touristic reasons, while respecting the natural environment and the culture of communities, as a National Park (Category II)

Objectives of the site

Bemaraha National Park's main role is to maintain natural ecosystems, natural habitats and their biodiversity as well as exceptional natural landscapes.

Within the western ecoregion, Bemaraha is a centre of endemism both for flora and fauna. It is one of the protected areas that is the richest in faunistic species and especially in karstic ecosystems (in the western ecoregion).

The protected area of Tsingy de Bemaraha also plays an important ecological role in the wider region. It is a water source for the entire downstream part of the Bemaraha plateau, especially at the level of the Manambolomaty lakes complex (one of the three RAMSAR sites in Madagascar - wetlands of international importance) and at the level of the rice granary of the region: Lake Bemamba.

The rivers draining the Antsingy are permanent streams. It is not the rivers or streams originating in the Antsingy that are responsible for this ecological function but it is the forest cover on limestone plateau. It retains the rainwater and then allows it to infiltrate little by little and feed the springs throughout the year.

Conservation targets

Endemic species require specific conservation actions as they are subject to pressure. They are key elements in the protected area and are referred to as "conservation targets".

For the protected area of Tsingy de Bemaraha they are:

  • Habitats
    • dense dry forest on limestone plateau: Highly fragmented forest formation; tpyical vegetation on karst (very fragile); natural habitat of many wildlife species
    • water system: The water system that drains the Antsingy has positive impacts on the ecological balance of the region

Note: Plant species are not to be considered as conservation targets in their own right, as it is better to manage forest habitats to conserve plant species rather than to manage them individually.

The site and local population

Human pressures and their impacts are the main threats to conservation targets. Indeed, the park is subject to various pressures such as:

  • Fire

The fires are periodic from June to October. Every year almost all the savanna (outside and inside the protected area) is burnt. Fortunately, the fires can not spread into the forest due to the bedrock, but mostly affect the borders.

  • Illegal logging

The local population harvests timber from the forest to meet their daily needs. Therefore they target trees with a diameter between 3cm and 20cm. Very few woods with a diameter greater than 30cm are cut. The cutting period is between June and November.

  • Land clearing

Land clearing is also one of the factors for forest degradation, even if the annually affected area is still minimal (1.20ha in 2001). The laying of lemur traps is one of the reasons for those clearings.

  • Hunting

Some lemur species are hunted, especially diurnal species. Most of the hunting takes place during the end of the rainy season from March to May.

  • Collecting wildlife

In recent years, wildlife species such as reptiles have been collected illegally for commercial purposes. The collection period takes place during the wet season. The caught animals are sent to the main collector in Antananarivo and from there enter the network of international wildlife trafficking. Note: Since the cancellation of the Air Madagascar flight to Antsalova, this illegal practice diminished.

Madagascar National Park's actions are not limited to the protection and preservation of natural species. Indeed, the Tsingy de Bemaraha National Park brings benefits to the local population while ensuring conservation through the development of ecotourism. By involving women and men in ecotourism activities, the national park provides jobs in the fields of guidance, portage, guarding, transport by cart and canoe, accommodation and catering.

In addition, 50% of the entrance fees for the protected areas are transferred to the local population to finance micro-community projects. Since 1999, communes such as Bekopaka and Antsalova have benefited from the construction of schools, classrooms, public laundries, wells, water retention dams and a fokontany office.


Due to the diverse environment and habitat there is an extremely rich fauna present in the park:

Group Species Endemic Non-endemic Unknown
Insectivore 3 3 0 0
Rodents 5 3 2 0
Chiropteras 16 13 3 0
Carnivores 4 3 1 0
Primates 11 11 0 0
Ungulates 1 0 1 0
Birds 103 72 29 2
Reptiles 87 73 6 6
Amphibians 34 33 2 0
Rhopalocera 112 1 0 111


Tsingy de Bemaraha IMG 4806.jpg

Different research has identified a total of 11 lemur species:

Family Scientific name English name Malagasy name Endemicity
Cheirogaleidae Cheirogaleus medius Fat-tailed dwarf lemur Kelibehoho endemic
Cheirogaleidae Microcebus murinus Grey mouse lemur Tilitiliva endemic
Cheirogaleidae Microcebus myoxinus Peters' mouse lemur Malagnira regionally endemic
Cheirogaleidae Mirza coquereli Coquerel's giant mouse lemur Kifonjitsy endemic
Cheirogaleidae Phaner pallescens Western fork-crowned lemur Tanta endemic
Lemuridae Lepilemur ruficaudatus Red-tailed sportive lemur Boenga endemic
Lemuridae Eulemur rufus Red lemur Gidro endemic
Hapalemuridae Hapalemur occidentalis Western grey bamboo lemur Bekolà regionally endemic
Daubentonidae Daubentonia madagascariensis Aye-aye Bekapaky endemic
Indriidae Avahi cleesei Bemaraha woolly lemur Dadintsifaka locally endemic
Indriidae Propithecus deckenii Van der Decken's sifaka Sifaka regionally endemic


Bemaraha is home to five bat families:

Family Scientific name English name Malagasy name Endemicity
Pteropodidae Pteropus rufus Madagascan flying fox Fanihy endemic
Pteropodidae Eidolon dupreanum Madagascan fruit bat Angavo endemic
Pteropodidae Rousettus madagascariensis Madagascan rousette   endemic
Emballonuridae Emballonura atrata Peters's sheath-tailed bat Kinakina endemic
Emballonuridae Taphozous mauritianus Mauritian tomb bat Kinakina  
Hipposideridae Paratriaenops furculus formerly Triaenops furculus Trouessart’s trident bat Kinakina endemic
Hipposideridae Triaenops menamena formerly Triaenops rufus Rufous trident bat Kinakina endemic
Hipposideridae Hipposideros commersoni Commerson's leaf-nosed bat Kinakina  
Molossidae Otomops madagascariensis Madagascar free-tailed bat Kinakina endemic
Molossidae Chaerephon leucogaster Grandidier's free-tailed bat Kinakina endemic
Molossidae Mops leucostigma Malagasy white-bellied free-tailed bat Kinakina  
Vespertilionidae Miniopterus gleni Glen's long-fingered bat Kinakina endemic
Vespertilionidae Miniopterus majori Major's long-fingered bat Kinakina endemic
Vespertilionidae Miniopterus manavi Manavi long-fingered bat Kinakina endemic
Vespertilionidae Myotis goudoti Malagasy mouse-eared bat Kinakina endemic
Vespertilionidae Scotophilus tandrefana Western yellow bat Kinakina regionally endemic


Family Scientific name English name Malagasy name Endemicity
Viveridae Eupleres goudotii Falanouc Kary endemic
Viveridae Cryptoprocta ferox Fossa Fosa endemic
Viveridae Viverricula indica Small Indian civet Jaboady  
Herpestidae Galidia elegans occidentalis Malagasy ring-tailed mongoose Vontsira locally endemic


Family Scientific name English name Malagasy name Endemicity
Muridae Eliurus antsingy Tsingy tuft-tailed rat   regionally endemic
Muridae Eliurus myoxinus Dormouse tufted-tailed rat   endemic
Muridae Nesomys lambertoni Lowland red forest rat Kibojenjy locally endemic
Muridae Mus musculus House mouse Totozy  
Muridae Rattus rattus Black rat Voalavo  


Bemaraha is very rich in birds. 103 species can be found in the area:

Family Scientific name English name Malagasy name Endemicity
Accipitridae Accipiter henstii Henst's goshawk Firasabe or Fandrasabe endemic
Accipitridae Accipiter madagascariensis Madagascar sparrowhawk Firasa endemic
Accipitridae Aviceda madagascariensis Madagascar cuckoo-hawk Bobaka endemic
Accipitridae Buteo brachypterus Madagascar buzzard Hindry endemic
Accipitridae Circus macrosceles Malagasy harrier   endemic
Accipitridae Circus maillardi Réunion harrier Fanindry regionally endemic
Accipitridae Haliaeetus vociferoides Madagascar fish eagle Ankoay or Ankoy endemic
Accipitridae Machaeramphus alcinus Bat hawk Rehila endemic
Accipitridae Milvus aegyptius Yellow-billed kite Papango  
Accipitridae Polybroides radiatus Madagascar harrier-hawk Fihaka or Fihiaky endemic
Alaudidae Mirafra hova Madagascar lark Sorohitra endemic
Alcedinidae Alcedo vintsioides Madagascar kingfisher Vintsirano regionally endemic
Alcedinidae Ceyx madagascariensis or Corythornis madagascariensis Madagascar pygmy-kingfisher Vintsiala endemic
Anatidae Dendrocygna viduata White-faced whistling duck Tsiriry  
Anatidae Sarkidiornis melanotos Knob-billed duck Tsivongo-Arosy  
Anhingidae Anhinga melanogaster Oriental Darter Voronalavambozona  
Apodidae Apus barbatus African black swift Tsiditsidina  
Apodidae Apus melba Alpine swift Tsiditsidina  
Apodidae Cypsiurus parvus African palm swift Tsiditsidina  
Apodidae Zoonavena grandidieri Madagascar spinetail Tsiditsidina regionally endemic
Ardeidae Ardea cinerea Grey heron Vanokasira  
Ardeidae Ardea purpurea Purple heron Vanomena  
Ardeidae Ardeola idae Madagascar pond-heron Mpiandrivoditatatrafotsy endemic
Ardeidae Ardeola ralloides Squacco heron Mpiandrivoditatatra  
Ardeidae Bubulcus ibis Cattle egret Vorompotsy  
Ardeidae Butorides striatus Green-backed heron Vorompantsika  
Ardeidae Egretta ardesiaca Black heron Lombokomana  
Ardeidae Egretta dimorpha Dimorphic egret Vanofotsy regionally endemic
Ardeidae Ixobrychus minutus Common little bittern    
Campephagidae Coracina cinerea Madagascar cuckoo-shrike Vorondavenona regionally endemic
Caprimulgidae Caprimulgus madagascariensis Madagascar nightjar Matoriandro regionally endemic
Charadriidae Charadrius hiaticula Common ringed plover Vikiviky  
Charadriidae Charadrius tricollaris African three-banded plover Vikiviky  
Columbidae Oena capensis Namaqua dove Katoto  
Columbidae Streptopelia picturata Madagascar turtle-dove Domohina regionally endemic
Columbidae Treron australis Madagascar green pigeon Voronadabo-Fonimaitso regionally endemic
Coraciidae Eurystomus glaucurus Broad-billed roller Vorombaratra  
Corvidae Corvus albus Pied crow Goaika  
Cuculidae Centropus toulou Madagascar coucal Toloho regionally endemic
Cuculidae Coua coquereli Coquerel's coua Gory endemic
Cuculidae Coua cristata Crested coua Tivoky endemic
Cuculidae Coua gigas Giant coua Lejabe-Angojobe endemic
Cuculidae Coua ruficeps Red-capped coua Aliotse-Akoky endemic
Cuculidae Cuculus rochii Madagascar cuckoo Taotaonkafa endemic
Dicrirudae Dicrurus forficatus Crested drongo Railovy regionally endemic
Estrildidae Lonchura nana Madagascar mannikin Tsikirity endemic
Falconidae Falco concolor Sooty falcon Firasambalala endemic
Falconidae Falco newtoni Madagascar kestrel Hitsikitsika regionally endemic
Falconidae Falco zoniventris Banded kestrel Hitsikitsikala endemic
Hirundinidae Phedina borbonica Mascarene martin Tsiditsidina endemic
Leptosomatidae Leptosomus discolor Cuckoo-roller Vorondreo regionally endemic
Meropidae Merops superciliosus Olive bee-eater Kirikioka  
Monarchidae Terpsiphone mutata Madagascar paradise-flycatcher Tsingitry  
Motacillidae Motacilla flaviventris Madagascar wagtail Triotrio endemic
Nectarinidae Cinnyris notatus or Nectarinia notata Madagascar green sunbird Soimangabe regionally endemic
Nectarinidae Cinnyris souimanga or Nectarinia souimanga Souimanga sunbird Soimangakely regionally endemic
Numididae Numida meleagris Helmeted guineafowl Akanga  
Phalacrocoracidae Microcarbo africanus Long-tailed cormorant Barafilo  
Phasianidae Coturnix delegorguei Harlequin quail Kibonaomby endemic
Phasianidae Margaroperdrix madagascariensis Tsipohy endemic
Philepittidae Philepitta schlegeli Schlegel's asity Asity endemic
Ploceidae Foudia madagascariensis Madagascar red fody Fody endemic
Podicipedidae Tachybaptus pelzelnii Madagascar grebe Vivy endemic
Podicipedidae Tachybaptus ruficollis Little grebe Vivy  
Psittacidae Agapornis canus Grey-headed lovebird Karaoke-Sarivazo endemic
Psittacidae Coracopsis nigra Lesser vasa parrot Bolokikely  
Psittacidae Coracopsis vasa Greater vasa parrot Bolokibe  
Pteroclididae Pterocles personatus Madagascar sandgrouse Katakatra endemic
Pycnonotidae Bernieria madagascariensis Long-billed bernieria   endemic
Pycnonotidae Hypsipetes madagascariensis Madagascar bulbul Tsikorovana  
Rallidae Canirallus kioloides Madagascar wood-rail Vorotrandraka endemic
Rallidae Dryolimnas cuvieri White-throated rail Tsikoza regionally endemic
Rallidae Gallinula chloropus Common moorhen Akohondrano  
Recurvirostridae Himantopus himantopus Black-winged stilt Takapaly  
Scolopacida Actitis hypoleucos Common sandpiper Vikiviky  
Scopidae Scopus umbretta Hamerkop Takatra  
Strigidae Asio madagascariensis Madagascar long-eared owl Hankà endemic
Strigidae Ninox superciliaris White-browed hawk-owl Tovotovoka endemic
Strigidae Otus rutilus Madagascar scops-owl Torotoroka regionally endemic
Sturnidae Hartlaubius auratus Madagascar starling Vorontainomby endemic
Sylvidae Acrocephalus newtoni Madagascar swamp-warbler Vorombatra endemic
Sylvidae Cisticola cherina Madagascar cisticola Tsintsina endemic
Sylvidae Neomixis tenella Common jery Jijy endemic
Sylvidae Nesillas typica Madagascar brush-warbler Poretaka regionally endemic
Sylvidae Newtonia brunneicauda Common newtonia Tretreka endemic
Threskiornithidae Lophotibis cristata Madagascar crested ibis Akohonala endemic
Turdidae Copsychus albospecularis Madagascar magpie-robin Fitatrala endemic
Turdidae Monticola sharpei Forest rock-thrush Androbaka endemic
Turdidae '   Vorombato regionally endemic
Turdidae Saxicola torquatus Common stonechat Fitadroranga  
Turnicidae Turnix nigricollis Madagascar buttonquail Kibobo endemic
Tytonidae Tyto alba Common barn-owl Vorondolo  
Upupidae Upupa marginata Madagascar hoopoe Takodara  
Vangidae Artamella viridis White-headed vanga Voromasiaka endemic
Vangidae Calicalicus madagascariensis Red-tailed vanga Totokarasoroka endemic
Vangidae Cyanolanius madagascarinus Blue vanga Patsatsatrala regionally endemic
Vangidae Falculea palliata Sickle-billed vanga Voronjaza endemic
Vangidae Leptopterus chabert Chabert's vanga Patsatsatra endemic
Vangidae Vanga curvirostris Hook-billed vanga Vangasoratra endemic
Zosteropidae Zosterops maderaspatanus Malagasy white-eye Fotsimaso regionally endemic


Tsingy de Bemaraha IMG 4715.jpg

Bemaraha is the richest in reptile and amphibian species of all the deciduous forests in western Madagascar.


Family Scientific name English name Malagasy name Endemicity
Scincidae Amphiglossus reticulatus or "Amphiglossus waterloti" Madagascar giant water skink   endemic
Scincidae Amphiglossus ornaticeps Gray skink   endemic
Scincidae Trachylepis aureopunctata or Mabuya aureopunctata Gold-spotted mabuya   endemic
Scincidae Trachylepis dumasi or Mabuya dumasi     endemic
Scincidae Trachylepis elegans or Mabuya elegans Elegant Mabuya   endemic
Scincidae Trachylepis gravenhorstii or Mabuya gravenhorstii Gravenhorst's mabuya   endemic
Scincidae Trachylepis tandrefana or Mabuya tandrefana     regionally endemic
Scincidae Trachylepis volamenaloha or Mabuya volamenaloha     locally endemic

Iguanas / Lizards:

Tsingy de Bemaraha IMG 4617.jpg

Family Scientific name English name Malagasy name Endemicity
Opluridae Oplurus cuvieri Cuvier's Madagascar swift or Madagascan collared iguana Androngovato  
Opluridae Oplurus cyclurus Merrem's Madagascar swift   endemic
Iguanidae Chalarodon madagascariensis Madagascar iguana Hatsatsaka regionally endemic
Gerrhosauridae Zonosaurus bemaraha     locally endemic
Gerrhosauridae Zonosaurus karsteni Karsten's girdled lizard   endemic
Gerrhosauridae Zonosaurus laticaudatus Western girdled lizard   endemic
Gerrhosauridae Zonosaurus madagascariensis Madagascar girdled lizard or Madagascar plated lizard   endemic


Family Scientific name English name Malagasy name Endemicity
Chamaeleonidae Brookesia brygooi Brygoo's leaf chameleon   endemic
Chamaeleonidae Brookesia exarmata Dwarf chameleon   locally endemic
Chamaeleonidae Brookesia perarmata Antsingy leaf chameleon Ramilaheloka locally endemic
Chamaeleonidae Furcifer lateralis Carpet chameleon or White-lined chameleon   endemic
Chamaeleonidae Furcifer nicosiai Nicosia's chameleon   locally endemic
Chamaeleonidae Furcifer oustaleti Malagasy giant chameleon or Oustalets's chameleon Sakorita endemic
Chamaeleonidae Furcifer petteri Petter's chameleon Sakorita endemic


Family Scientific name English name Malagasy name Endemicity
Gekkonidae Geckolepis maculata Peters' Spotted Gecko   endemic
Gekkonidae Hemidactylus mercatorius "House gecko"   endemic
Gekkonidae Blaesodactylus sakalava     regionally endemic
Gekkonidae Lygodactylus klemmeri Malagasy dwarf gecko   locally endemic
Gekkonidae Lygodactylus ornatus Ornate dwarf gecko   endemic
Gekkonidae Lygodactylus heterurus Boettger's dwarf gecko   endemic
Gekkonidae Lygodactylus miops Günther's dwarf gecko   endemic
Gekkonidae Lygodactylus tolampyae Grandidier's dwarf gecko   regionally endemic
Gekkonidae Paragehyra petiti Angel's petite gecko   endemic
Gekkonidae Paroedura bastardi Mocquard's Madagascar ground gecko   endemic
Gekkonidae Paroedura homalorhina Northern Madagascar ground gecko   endemic
Gekkonidae Paroedura karstophila     endemic
Gekkonidae Paroedura stumpffi     endemic
Gekkonidae Paroedura tanjaka     regionally endemic
Gekkonidae Phelsuma abbotti Abbott's day gecko    
Gekkonidae Phelsuma madagascariensis kochi Madagascar day gecko Hatsatsamaintso endemic
Gekkonidae Phelsuma mutabilis Thick tail gecko Hatsatsamaintso regionally endemic
Gekkonidae Uroplatus fimbriatus Giant leaf-tailed gecko or Common flat-tail gecko Tahafisaka endemic
Gekkonidae Uroplatus guentheri Gunther's flat-tail gecko or Guenther's leaf-tail gecko   regionally endemic
Gekkonidae Uroplatus henkeli Henkel's leaf-tailed gecko Seseke regionally endemic
Gekkonidae Uroplatus ebenaui Spearpoint leaf-tail gecko or Spear-tailed gecko   endemic


Family Scientific name English name Malagasy name Endemicity
Typhlopidae Rhamphotyphlops braminus Brahminy blind snake    
Typhlopidae Typhlops reuteri Reuters blind snake   endemic
Boidae Acrantophis dumerili Dumeril's boa Do endemic
Boidae Sanzinia madagascariensis ssp. madagascariensis (East) Malagasy tree boa Manditra endemic
Boidae Sanzinia madagascariensis ssp. volontany (West) Malagasy tree boa Manditra endemic
Colubridae Alluaudina bellyi     endemic
Colubridae Dromicodryas bernieri Bernier's striped snake   endemic
Colubridae Dromicodryas quadrilineatus Four-striped snake   endemic
Colubridae Ithycyphus miniatus Tiny night snake   endemic
Colubridae Ithycyphus oursi     endemic
Colubridae Langaha madagascariensis formerly Langaha nasuta Madagascar leaf-nosed snake   endemic
Colubridae Leioheterodon madagascariensis Giant Madagascan hognose Menarana endemic
Colubridae Leioheterodon modestus Blonde hognose snake Sabomalandy endemic
Colubridae Liophidium rhodogaster Gold-collared snake   endemic
Colubridae Liopholidophis lateralis Lateral water snake   endemic
Colubridae Liopholidophis stumpffi Yellow-striped water snake   endemic
Colubridae Madagascarophis colubrinus citrinus "Madagascar cat-eyed snake"   endemic
Colubridae Madagascarophis colubrinus occidentalis "Madagascar cat-eyed snake" Alapata endemic
Colubridae Mimophis mahfalensis Pencil snake   endemic
Colubridae Pseudoxyrhopus     endemic
Colubridae Phisalixella arctifasciata or Stenophis arctifasciatus     endemic
Colubridae Lycodryas citrinus or Stenophis citrinus     endemic
Colubridae Lycodryas gaimardi or Stenophis gaimardi     endemic
Colubridae Lycodryas pseudogranuliceps or Stenophis pseudogranuliceps     locally endemic

Crocodile / Turtles / Tortoise

Family Scientific name English name Malagasy name Endemicity
Crocodylidae Crocodylus niloticus Nile crocodile Voay  
Pelomedusidae Erymnochelis madagascariensis Madagascar big-headed turtle Rere endemic
Pelomedusidae Pelomedusa subrufa Helmeted turtle Kapika  
Pelomedusidae Pelusios subniger East African black mud turtle    
Testudinidae Pyxis planicauda Flat-tailed tortoise Kapidolo endemic

According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the turtle species Erymnochelys madagascariensis is "critically endangered".


Bemaraha National Park is home to 34 species of amphibians:

Family Scientific name English name Malagasy name Endemicity
Ranidae Hoplobatrachus tigerinus Indus valley bullfrog Tsirevo  
Ranidae Ptychadena mascareniensis Mascarene grass frog or Mascarene ridged frog Sahona  
Ranidae Tomopterna labrosa "Madagascar sand frog"   endemic
Hyperoliidae Heterixalus betsileo Betsileo reed frog   endemic
Hyperoliidae Heterixalus carbonei     locally endemic
Hyperoliidae Heterixalus luteostriatus     regionally endemic
Microhylidae Dyscophus insularis Antsouhy tomato frog   endemic
Microhylidae Plethodontohyla notosticta Mahanoro digging frog   endemic
Microhylidae Scaphiophryne calcarata Moquard's burrowing frog   endemic
Microhylidae Scaphiophryne marmorata Marbled rain frog or Green burrowing frog   endemic
Microhylidae Scaphiophryne menabensis     regionally endemic
Microhylidae Stumpffia     endemic
Mantellidae Aglyptodactylus madagascariensis Madagascar jumping frog   endemic
Mantellidae Boophis occidentalis Western white lipped treefrog Sahomaintso endemic
Mantellidae Boophis luteus Ankafana bright-eyed frog   endemic
Mantellidae Boophis doulioti     endemic
Mantellidae Boophis tephraeomystax Dumeril's bright-eyed frog   endemic
Mantellidae Laliostoma labrosum Madagascar bullfrog   endemic
Mantellidae Mantella betsileo Brown Mantella Sahomena endemic
Mantellidae Mantidactylus biporus Two-pore Madagascar frog   endemic
Mantellidae Gephyromantis corvus formerly Mantidactylus corvus Isalo Madagascar frog   endemic
Mantellidae Mantidactylus curtus Ankafana Madagascar frog   endemic
Mantellidae Gephyromantis luteus formerly Mantidactylus luteus White folohy Madagascar frog   endemic
Mantellidae Gephyromantis granulatus formerly Mantidactylus granulatus Grainy Madagascar frog   endemic
Mantellidae Mantidactylus sp. (cf corvus) prob M.tsingy   Sahotsingy locally endemic
Mantellidae Mantidactylus ulcerosus Warty Madagascar frog   endemic
Mantellidae Mantidactylus wittei Witte's Madagascar frog   endemic

Butterflies (diurnal)

Tsingy de Bemaraha IMG 4909.jpg

Family Scientific name English name Malagasy name Endemicity
Callinduridae Griveaudia vieui      
Hesperiidae Borbo borbonica Borbo skipper or Zeller's skipper    
Hesperiidae Borbo gemella Twin swift    
Hesperiidae Borbo havei      
Hesperiidae Coeliades ernesti      
Hesperiidae Coeliades forestas cubegastei      
Hesperiidae Coeliades rama      
Hesperiidae Coeliades ramanatek      
Hesperiidae Fulda australis      
Hesperiidae Fulda bernieri      
Hesperiidae Fulda lucida      
Hesperiidae Fulda rhadama      
Hesperiidae Miraja      
Hesperiidae Parnara naso poutieri African straight or Straight swift    
Hesperiidae Pelopidas mathias Dark small-branded swift, Small branded swift or Lesser millet skipper    
Hesperiidae Tagiades insularis      
Hesperiidae Tagiades samborana      
Lycaenidae Anthene princeps Cupreous hairtail    
Lycaenidae Azanus jesous African babul blue    
Lycaenidae Azanus sitalces sitalces Large Madagascar babul blue    
Lycaenidae Chilades minuscula      
Lycaenidae Deudorix antalus Brown playboy    
Lycaenidae Euchrysops decaryi      
Lycaenidae Euchrysops malathana Common smoky blue    
Lycaenidae Euchrysops osoris Osiris smoky blue or African cupid    
Lycaenidae Hemiolaus cobaltina      
Lycaenidae Hypolycaena philippus ssp. ramonza Purple-brown hairstreak or Common hairstreak    
Lycaenidae Lampides boeticus Long-tailed blue    
Lycaenidae Leptomyrina phidias Madagascar black-eye    
Lycaenidae Leptotes pirithous Lang's short-tailed blue    
Lycaenidae Leptotes rabefaner      
Lycaenidae Zizeeria knysna Dark grass blue or African grass blue    
Lycaenidae Zizina antanossa Dark grass blue or Clover blue    
Lycaenidae Zizula hylax Tiny grass blue or Gaika blue    
Nymphalidae Acraea dissimilis      
Nymphalidae Acraea encedon Common acraea or White-barred acraea    
Nymphalidae Acraea eponina Orange acraea    
Nymphalidae Acraea igati      
Nymphalidae Acraea mahela      
Nymphalidae Acraea ranavalona      
Nymphalidae Acraea turna      
Nymphalidae Acraea zitja      
Nymphalidae Amauris nossima antsingyi "Madagascan friar"   locally endemic
Nymphalidae Apaturopsis kilusa      
Nymphalidae Apaturopsis paulianii      
Nymphalidae Byblia anvatara anvatara Common joker    
Nymphalidae Charaxes andara      
Nymphalidae Charaxes andranodorus      
Nymphalidae Charaxes antamboulou Madagascar green-veined charaxes    
Nymphalidae Charaxes zoolina betsimisaraka Club-tailed emperor or Club-tailed charaxes    
Nymphalidae Cymothoe lambertoni      
Nymphalidae Cyrestis camillus elegans African map butterfly    
Nymphalidae Danaus chrysippus Plain tiger or African monarch    
Nymphalidae Eurantha madagascariensis      
Nymphalidae Eurica madagascariensis      
Nymphalidae Eurytela dryope lineata Golden piper    
Nymphalidae Henotesia ankaratra      
Nymphalidae Henotesia laeta      
Nymphalidae Henotesia maeva      
Nymphalidae Henotesia narcissus fraterna      
Nymphalidae Hypolimnas deceptor Deceptive eggfly    
Nymphalidae Hypolimnas misippus Danaid eggfly    
Nymphalidae Libythea tsiandava      
Nymphalidae Melanitis leda ssp. helena Common evening brown    
Nymphalidae Aterica rabena      
Nymphalidae Neptidopsis fulgurata fulgurata Malagasy sailer or Barred false sailer    
Nymphalidae Neptis kikideli      
Nymphalidae Pardopsis punctatissima Polka dot    
Nymphalidae Phalanta madagascariensis      
Nymphalidae Phalanta phalantha aethiopica Common leopard or Spotted rustic    
Nymphalidae Precis andremiaja Banded commodore    
Nymphalidae Precis eurodoce      
Nymphalidae Precis goudotii      
Nymphalidae Junonia hierta or Precis hierta Yellow pansy    
Nymphalidae Junonia oenone or Precis oenone epicletia Blue pansy    
Nymphalidae Junonia rhadama or Precis rhadama Brilliant blue    
Nymphalidae Pseudacraea imerina      
Nymphalidae Pseudacraea peyrierasi      
Nymphalidae Protogoniomorpha anacardii ssp. duprei or Salamis anacardii duprei Clouded mother-of-pearl    
Nymphalidae Salamis anteva      
Nymphalidae Strabena goudotii      
Nymphalidae Strabena tamatave      
Nymphalidae Zicochrysops sanguigulla      
Papilionidae Graphium cyrnus Red-veined swallowtail    
Papilionidae Graphium evombar      
Papilionidae Papilio dardanus African swallowtail or Mocker swallowtail    
Papilionidae Papilio delalandei     endemic
Papilionidae Papilio demodocus Citrus swallowtail or Christmas butterfly    
Papilionidae Papilio epiphorbas      
Papilionidae Papilio erithonioides      
Papilionidae Papilio grosesmithi      
Papilionidae Papilio morondavana Madagascan emperor swallowtail    
Papilionidae Pharmacophagus antenor Madagascar giant swallowtail    
Pieridae Appias sabina Sabine albatross or Albatross white    
Pieridae Belenois grandidieri      
Pieridae Belenois helcida      
Pieridae Belenois mabella      
Pieridae Catopsilia florella African migrant or Common vagrant    
Pieridae Catopsilia thauruma Madagascar migrant    
Pieridae Colotis evanthe      
Pieridae Colotis lucasi Giant orange-tip    
Pieridae Eurema brigitta pulchella Small grass yellow or Broad-bordered grass yellow    
Pieridae Eurema desjardinsii desjardinsii Angled grass yellow    
Pieridae Eurema floricola floricola Malagasy grass yellow    
Pieridae Leptosia alcesta sylvicola African wood white    
Pieridae Mylothris phileris      
Uraniidae Acropteris      
Uraniidae Chrysiridia rhipheus Madagascan sunset moth    


The area has a unique vegetation and endemic flora:

  • Dense deciduous forest primarily tropophyl - typical of the western ecoregion - forming a continuous massif in the western part of the park and intersected by savannas in the eastern part.
  • Several vegetation types, ranging from very dry on the limestone slabs to wet in the canyons and along rivers. 86% of the plant species are endemic, about 650 were inventoried.

Faced with the particular ecological conditions of the environment, there are various forms of adaptation in the park:

  • Spinescence (leaves become spines to limit water loss)
  • Pachycaul (the trunks grow disproportionately to store water)
  • Reviviscence (vegetative parts dry out and continue with a slowed life before the arrival of rain)
  • Dwarfism (short in stature)

With regard to floristic species, the plant formations of the Antsingy include more than 830 species which consist of:

Group Family Genus Species
Angiospermae / Dicotyledons (flowering plants) 84 357 642
Monocotyledons (flowering plants which seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf) 21 98 175
Pteridophytes (vascular plants which reproduce via spores) 5 14 16
Total 110 469 833

Tsingy de Bemaraha IMG 4906.jpg
Tsingy de Bemaraha IMG 4651.jpg Tsingy de Bemaraha IMG 4755.jpg Tsingy de Bemaraha IMG 4619.jpg

The inventory identified:

Dicotyledons (Flowering plants)

Family Scientific name English name Malagasy name Endemicity
Acanthaceae Asystasia coromandeliana Nees or Asystasia gangetica Chinese violet, Coromandel or Creeping foxglove    
Acanthaceae Barleria humilis     endemic
Acanthaceae Barleria prionitis Porcupine flower Lengondroy  
Acanthaceae Blepharis crinita     endemic
Acanthaceae Dicliptera leandrii      
Acanthaceae Dicliptera ocymoides      
Acanthaceae Ecbolium syringifolium     endemic
Acanthaceae Forsythiopsis vincoides or Oplonia vincoides   Ananahontsy endemic
Acanthaceae Hypoestes arachnopus     endemic
Acanthaceae Hypoestes penicillata     endemic
Acanthaceae Hypoestes   Ahimalemy endemic
Acanthaceae Justicia gendarussa      
Acanthaceae Justicia tenella      
Acanthaceae Mendoncia flagellaris   Vahirano endemic
Acanthaceae Neuracanthus leandrii   Soasompa endemic
Acanthaceae Stenandriopsis thompsoni     endemic
Acanthaceae Thunbergia alata Black-eyed susan vine    
Aizoaceae Mollugo oppositifolia or Glinus oppositifolius Slender carpet-weed Anamafaiky  
Amaranthaceae Achyranthes aspera Devil's horsewhip or Chaff-flower Tsipotiky  
Amaranthaceae Celosia argentea Quail grass or Common cockscomb Tsiparaky  
Amaranthaceae Crinum firmifolium      
Anacardiaceae Abrahamia humbertii   Ditimena endemic
Anacardiaceae Abrahamia sericea     endemic
Anacardiaceae Anacardium occidentale Cashew Mahabibo  
Anacardiaceae Mangifera indica Mango or Indian mango Manga  
Anacardiaceae Micronychia perrieri   Taranta-Tsitaky endemic
Anacardiaceae Poupartia caffra   Sakoa  
Anacardiaceae Poupartia chapelieri   Sakoambanditsy endemic
Anacardiaceae Poupartia gummifera   Sakoambanditsy endemic
Anacardiaceae Poupartia minor   Sakoanala endemic
Anacardiaceae Poupartia silvatica   Sakoambanditsy endemic
Anacardiaceae Sorindeia madagascariensis var. thouarsii   Vonotandraky  
Anisophylleaceae Anisophyllea fallax   Hazomamy endemic
Annonaceae Ambavia gerardii   Hazombavy endemic
Annonaceae Artabotrys madagascariensis   Voavahy endemic
Annonaceae Isolona madagascariensis   Ombary endemic
Annonaceae Monanthotaxis boivinii   Fotsiavadika endemic
Annonaceae Monanthotaxis valida     endemic
Annonaceae Polyalthia henricii     endemic
Annonaceae Uvaria amplexicaulis     endemic
Annonaceae Uvaria combretifolia   Hazompoty endemic
Annonaceae Uvaria leandriana     endemic
Annonaceae Xylopia cf madagascariensis   Taipapango endemic
Apiaceae Centella asiatica Centella or Gotu cola Talapetraka  
Apiaceae Centella coriacea   Villihitsahona  
Apocynaceae Alafia perrieri     endemic
Apocynaceae Alafia thouarsii     endemic
Apocynaceae Baseonema      
Apocynaceae Carissa edulis Conkerberry or Bush plum Fahavalonkazo endemic
Apocynaceae Carissa septentrionalis   Tsionala endemic
Apocynaceae Carissa sessiliflora   Voantsikopika endemic
Apocynaceae Catharanthus roseus Madagascar periwinkle Vonenona endemic
Apocynaceae Cerbera venenifera   Tangena endemic
Apocynaceae Landolphia perrieri   Piralahy endemic
Apocynaceae Mascarenhansia arborescens   Gidroa  
Apocynaceae Mascarenhansia lisianthiflora   Gidroa endemic
Apocynaceae Pachypodium lamerei "Madagascar palm" Vontaky endemic
Apocynaceae Pachypodium rosulatum Elephant's foot plant Vontaky endemic
Apocynaceae Pachypodium rutenbergianum   Vontaky endemic
Apocynaceae Pachypodium sofiense   Vontaky endemic
Apocynaceae Petchia erythrocarpa   Andriambavifohy endemic
Apocynaceae Plectaneia rhomboidalis   Vahitsindy endemic
Apocynaceae Stephanostegia hildebrandti     endemic
Apocynaceae Tabernaemontana calcarea   Sarikaboky endemic
Apocynaceae Tabernaemontana coffeoides   Popoly endemic
Apocynaceae Voacanga thouarsii   Kaboka  
Araliaceae Polyscias grevei     endemic
Araliaceae Schefflera cf. boivini     endemic
Asclepiadaceae Cryptostegia grandiflora   Lombiro  
Asclepiadaceae Cryptostegia madagascariensis Madagascar rubbervine Lombiro endemic
Asclepiadaceae Cynanchum arenarium      
Asclepiadaceae Cynanchum danguyanum      
Asclepiadaceae Cynanchum eurychitoides     endemic
Asclepiadaceae Cynanchum gerardii      
Asclepiadaceae Cynanchum mangokense     endemic
Asclepiadaceae Gomphocarpus fruticosus Narrow-leaf cotton bush or African milkweed Tsinoronoro-Fanoro  
Asclepiadaceae Gonocrypta grevei      
Asclepiadaceae Leptadenia madagascariensis   Vahironto endemic
Asclepiadaceae Marsdenia verrucosa      
Asclepiadaceae Pycnoneurum junciforme      
Asclepiadaceae Secamone ankarensis   Kisompa  
Asclepiadaceae Secamone cloiselii     endemic
Asclepiadaceae Secamone tenuifolia     endemic
Asteraceae Ageratum conyzoides Billygoat weed Bemaimbo  
Asteraceae Bidens bipinnata Spanish-needles Tsipolitrala  
Asteraceae Blainvillea latifolia      
Asteraceae Brachylaena perrieri   Mera endemic
Asteraceae Crassocephalum sarcobasis   Anandambo  
Asteraceae Dicoma incana   Peha endemic
Asteraceae Elephantopus scaber Elephants-foot    
Asteraceae Eriosoma psoroleioides   Voapika  
Asteraceae Helichrysum leucosphaerum   Sarirambiazy endemic
Asteraceae Helichrysum triplinerve   Zavontany endemic
Asteraceae Laggera alata      
Asteraceae Mikania scandens Climbing hempvine Vahimbararata  
Asteraceae Psiadia altissima   Dingadinga  
Asteraceae Pluchea bojeri   Famonty endemic
Asteraceae Senecio      
Asteraceae Tridax procumbens Tridax daisy or Coatbuttons Angamay  
Asteraceae Vernonia grandis   Ambiaty-Benty lahy endemic
Asteraceae Vernonia polygalaefolia   Kanda endemic
Asteraceae Vigna angivensis      
Balsaminaceae Impatiens Jewelweed or Snapweed    
Begoniaceae Begonia antsingyensis     locally endemic
Begoniaceae Begonia bekopakensis     locally endemic
Begoniaceae Begonia goudotii   Mahabetany endemic
Begoniaceae Begonia majungaensis     endemic
Bignoniaceae Fernandoa madagascariensis   Somotsoy endemic
Bignoniaceae Phyllarthron bernerianum   Tohiravy endemic
Bignoniaceae Phyllarthron subembelletum   Tohiravy endemic
Bignoniaceae Phylloctenium bernieri   Voantsakalava- Fatipatikala endemic
Bignoniaceae Stereospermum euphoroides   Mangarahara endemic
Bignoniaceae Stereospermum variabile   Mangarahara endemic
Boraginaceae Cordia mairei   Varo endemic
Boraginaceae Cordia subcordata Mareer or Kerosene tree Varo endemic
Boraginaceae Cynoglossum lanceolatum      
Boraginaceae Ehretia antsingyae   Vatoa endemic
Boraginaceae Ehretia seyrigii     endemic
Boraginaceae Hilsenbergia apetala      
Boraginaceae Hilsenbergia labatii      
Brassicaceae Crateva excelsa     endemic
Brassicaceae Crateva greveana     endemic
Brassicaceae Rorippa micrantha   Sorea  
Brassicaceae Tilachium panduriforme     endemic
Burseraceae Canarium madagascariense   Ramy endemic
Burseraceae Commiphora cf. aprevalii   Arofy-Arofimena endemic
Burseraceae Commiphora grandiflora   Matambelo endemic
Burseraceae Commiphora leandriana   Matambelo endemic
Burseraceae Commiphora pterocarpa   Matambelo endemic
Canellaceae Cinnamosma frangans   Motrobeatinana endemic
Caryophyllaceae Polycarpaea corymbosa      
Caryophyllaceae Polycarpaea erientha      
Celastraceae Brexia madagascariensis     endemic
Celastraceae Brexiella ilicifolia   Rehampy endemic
Celastraceae Celastrus Bittersweet or Staff vine    
Celastraceae Loesneriella urceolus      
Celastraceae Maytenus divaricata     endemic
Celastraceae Polycardia aquifolium   Mamiandravy endemic
Celastraceae Salacia madagascariensis   Vahipindy endemic
Celtidaceae Celtis gomphophylla     endemic
Celtidaceae Celtis philippensis   Tsiambanilaza  
Celtidaceae Trema orientalis Peach cedar Andrarezina  
Clusiaceae Garcinia calcicola   Litsaky endemic
Clusiaceae Garcinia chapelieri   Mokombe endemic
Clusiaceae Garcinia verrucosa   Litsaky endemic
Clusiaceae Harungana madagascariensis Dragon's blood tree or Haronga Harongam-panihy endemic
Clusiaceae Psorospermum cerasifolium   Harongampanihy endemic
Combretaceae Combretum coccineum   Tamenaky endemic
Combretaceae Combretum eriantha   Voanjon'i Letovo  
Combretaceae Combretum macrocalyx   Kijamonjo endemic
Combretaceae Terminalia rhopalophylla   Taliala endemic
Combretaceae Terminalia boivinii   Amaninaomby endemic
Combretaceae Terminalia calcicola      
Combretaceae Terminalia leandriana   Taly endemic
Combretaceae Terminalia namorokensis   Taliala endemic
Combretaceae Terminalia ulexoides   Taly endemic
Connaraceae Rourea orientalis Shortpod Hibaky endemic
Convolvulaceae Argyreia vahibora   Vahibora endemic
Convolvulaceae Bonamia spectabilis     endemic
Convolvulaceae Ipomoea cairica Coast morning glory    
Convolvulaceae Ipomoea desmophylla     endemic
Convolvulaceae Ipomoea eriocarpa   Abotono  
Convolvulaceae Ipomoea longituba     endemic
Convolvulaceae Ipomoea pterygocaulis      
Convolvulaceae Ipomoea quamoclit Cypress vine or Cypressvine morning glory    
Convolvulaceae Ipomoea verbascoidea     endemic
Convolvulaceae Jacquemontia paniculata     endemic
Convolvulaceae Xenostegia tridentata formerly Merremia tridentata Narrow-leaved merremia Atarikolo  
Convolvulaceae Operculina turpethum      
Crassulaceae Kalanchoe aff schizophylla     endemic
Crassulaceae Kalanchoe gastonis-bonnieri Donkey ears   endemic
Cucurbitacea Cucumis melo Muskmelon Voatavo  
Cucurbitacea Lemurosicyos variegatus   Sarivoasikivy endemic
Cucurbitacea Xerosicyos perrieri     endemic
Dichapetalaceae Dichapetalum bojeri     endemic
Dichapetalaceae Dichapetalum humbertii     endemic
Ebenaceae Diospyros chitonophora   Mapingo endemic
Ebenaceae Diospyros ferrea     endemic
Ebenaceae Diospyros gneissicola   Arivoravy endemic
Ebenaceae Diospyros greveana     endemic
Ebenaceae Diospyros haplostylis   Maintifototsy-Fanazava  
Ebenaceae Diospyros myriophylla   Arivoravy endemic
Ebenaceae Diospyros perrieri   Lopingo endemic
Ebenaceae Diospyros pervillei   Lopingo endemic
Ebenaceae Diospyros sakalavarum   Vatoa endemic
Ebenaceae Diospyros tropophylla      
Ebenaceae Diospyros urschii     endemic
Ericaceae Agarista salicifolia   Mameaho  
Erythroxylaceae Erythroxylum calyculatum     endemic
Erythroxylaceae Erythroxylum corymbosum   Menahy endemic
Erythroxylaceae Erythroxylum pachycladum     endemic
Erythroxylaceae Erythroxylum platycladum   Tampia endemic
Erythroxylaceae Erythroxylum retusum   Menahy endemic
Erythroxylaceae Erythroxylum seyrigii     endemic
Erythroxylaceae Erythroxylum sphaeranthum     endemic
Erythroxylaceae Erythroxylum xerophylum   Menahy endemic
Euphorbiaceae Acalypha filiformis var. urophylla formrly Acalypha reticulata var urophylla     endemic
Euphorbiaceae Antidesma madagascariense madagascariense formerly Alchornea alnifolia   Tanatanandemo  
Euphorbiaceae Antidesma petiolare   Voafongna  
Euphorbiaceae Aristogeitonia perrieri     endemic
Euphorbiaceae Blotia bemarensis     endemic
Euphorbiaceae Blotia   Fanjavala endemic
Euphorbiaceae Bridelia pervilleana   Kitata endemic
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia hirta formerly Chamaesyce hirta Asthma plant Ronononombilahy  
Euphorbiaceae Cladogelonium madagascariense     endemic
Euphorbiaceae Claoxylopsis perrieri   Hazofia endemic
Euphorbiaceae Cleidion capuronii   Hazompasy endemic
Euphorbiaceae Cleistanthus boivinianus   Hazontsifaky endemic
Euphorbiaceae Cleistanthus perrieri   Hazontsifaky endemic
Euphorbiaceae Croton adabolavensis   Somoro endemic
Euphorbiaceae Croton argyrodaphne   Volafoty endemic
Euphorbiaceae Croton bernieri     endemic
Euphorbiaceae Croton elaeagni   Tifotifo endemic
Euphorbiaceae Croton jennyanus     endemic
Euphorbiaceae Croton lapiazicola     endemic
Euphorbiaceae Dalechampia clematidifolia   Vahindrongony  
Euphorbiaceae Droceloncia reticulata   Hazofotsy endemic
Euphorbiaceae Droceloncia rigidifolia   Hazombiby endemic
Euphorbiaceae Drypetes thouarsii   Hazontsifaky endemic
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia ankaranae   Antso endemic
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia enterophora   Famata endemic
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia mandravioky     endemic
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia milii Crown-of-thorns or Christ plant   endemic
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia tirucalli Fire stick or Pencil tree   endemic
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia viguieri   Famata endemic
Euphorbiaceae Excoecaria antsingyensis     locally endemic
Euphorbiaceae Excoecaria humbertii     endemic
Euphorbiaceae Gelonium adenophorum      
Euphorbiaceae Givotia madagascariensis   Mokaraha-Farafatsy endemic
Euphorbiaceae Grossera perrieri   Vatoa-Tanatana endemic
Euphorbiaceae Macaranga cuspidata     endemic
Euphorbiaceae Macaranga ferruginea     endemic
Euphorbiaceae Mallotus oppositifolius     endemic
Euphorbiaceae Omphalea occidentalis   Salemy endemic
Euphorbiaceae Petalodiscus fadenii   Fanjavala endemic
Euphorbiaceae Petalodiscus ranavalonae     endemic
Euphorbiaceae Phyllanthus amarus Dukong anak Ambanivihy  
Euphorbiaceae Phyllanthus casticum   Ambanivihy endemic
Euphorbiaceae Phyllanthus rhomboidalis   Kororondambo  
Euphorbiaceae Securinega trichogynis     endemic
Euphorbiaceae Securinega antsingyensis   Forofoka-Anatsiko locally endemic
Euphorbiaceae Suregada boiviniana     endemic
Euphorbiaceae Tragia furialis   Mia  
Fabaceae Abrus precatorius Rosary pea or Crab's eye Voamaintilany  
Fabaceae Acacia lapiazicola   Migongo-Peha endemic
Fabaceae Acacia pervillei   Tsirofota endemic
Fabaceae Acacia rovumae   Roibontsy  
Fabaceae Aeschynomene Joint vetch Kantsakantsa  
Fabaceae Albizia bernieri   Alomboro  
Fabaceae Albizia gummifera Peacock flower Alomboro  
Fabaceae Albizia kalkora formerly Albizia lebbeck   Bonara  
Fabaceae Albizia perrieri   Sandraza endemic
Fabaceae Alysicarpus ovalifolius formerly Alysicarpus vaginalis Alyce clover Mafifototra  
Fabaceae Atylosia scarabaeoides      
Fabaceae Baphia capparidifolia     endemic
Fabaceae Baudouinia fluggeiformis   Manjakabentany endemic
Fabaceae Bauhinia hildebrandtii   Bagnaky endemic
Fabaceae Bauhinia monandra Pink bauhinia or Orchid tree   endemic
Fabaceae Bauhinia porosa   Bagnaky endemic
Fabaceae Bussea sakalava   Kitratratsy endemic
Fabaceae Cajanus indicus Pigeon pea Ndrembazaha  
Fabaceae Cajanus scarabaeoides Showy pigeonpea Keliantitra  
Fabaceae Calliandra alternans   Ambelazo-Ambiotsy endemic
Fabaceae Canavalia Jack-bean Fangilitany  
Fabaceae Cassia leandrii   Fanombato endemic
Fabaceae Chamaecrista mimosoides formerly Cassia mimosoides   Velonasara  
Fabaceae Caesalpinia bonduc Nickernut or Grey nicker Katra  
Fabaceae Caesalpinia sepiaria      
Fabaceae Chadsia coluteifolia     endemic
Fabaceae Colvillea racemosa Colville's glory tree   endemic
Fabaceae Cordyla madagascariensis   Anakaraky endemic
Fabaceae Crotalaria bernieri     endemic
Fabaceae Crotalaria retusa Rattleweed    
Fabaceae Cynometra commersoniana   Soalafika endemic
Fabaceae Cynometra sakalava   Soalafika endemic
Fabaceae Dalbergia baronii   Manary endemic
Fabaceae Dalbergia bracteolata   Vahinta  
Fabaceae Dalbergia chlorocarpa   Manary endemic
Fabaceae Dalbergia glaberrima   Manary endemic
Fabaceae Dalbergia greveana   Manarintoloho endemic
Fabaceae Dalbergia hildebrandtii   Manary endemic
Fabaceae Dalbergia humbertii   Manary endemic
Fabaceae Dalbergia neoperrieri   Manary endemic
Fabaceae Dalbergia trichocarpa   Manary endemic
Fabaceae Delonix adansonioides   Malamasafoy endemic
Fabaceae Delonix boiviniana   Fengoky endemic
Fabaceae Delonix leucantha bemaraensis     locally endemic
Fabaceae Delonix regia Flamboyant tree or Royal poinciana Sarongaza endemic
Fabaceae Desmanthus greveanus      
Fabaceae Desmodium adscendens      
Fabaceae Desmodium canum      
Fabaceae Desmodium incanum formerly Desmodium frutescens Creeping beggarweed or Spanish clover    
Fabaceae Desmodium fusco-pilosum      
Fabaceae Desmodium lasiocarpum   Mandalo dia raikitra  
Fabaceae Desmodium ramosissimum   Tsivalondrivotra  
Fabaceae Desmodium velutinum      
Fabaceae Alantsilodendron pilosum formerly Dichrostachys cinerea   Rehotsy endemic
Fabaceae Dolichos      
Fabaceae Entada chrysostachys Zambezi seabean    
Fabaceae Entada gigas Nicker bean Vahibe-Vahinkabaro  
Fabaceae Eriosema psoraleoides   Voapika  
Fabaceae Erythrina fusca formerly Erythrina indica Purple coraltree Monongo  
Fabaceae Erythrina madagascariensis   Monongo endemic
Fabaceae Gagnebina commersonii     endemic
Fabaceae Indigofera bemarahaensis     locally endemic
Fabaceae Indigofera compressa   Kifafalahy  
Fabaceae Indigofera tinctoria True indigo    
Fabaceae Leptodesmia congesta      
Fabaceae Milleti aurea      
Fabaceae Mimosa asperata Puerto Rico sensitive-briar Rohibe  
Fabaceae Mimosa pigra Mimosa or Giant sensitive tree    
Fabaceae Mimosa pudica Sensitive plant or Touch-me-not Rohimena  
Fabaceae Mimosa sensitiva      
Fabaceae Mucuna gigantea Burny bean Takilotsy  
Fabaceae Mucuna pruriens Velvet bean Takilotra  
Fabaceae Mundulea sericea   Tsarambatra endemic
Fabaceae Neoapaloxylon tuberosum   Talamena endemic
Fabaceae Neoharmsia madagascariensis   Voandroza endemic
Fabaceae Phylloxylon ensifolium   Tsiavango endemic
Fabaceae Phylloxylon perrieri     endemic
Fabaceae Rhynchosia      
Fabaceae Sesbania madagascariensis   Kintsakintsa endemic
Fabaceae Sesbania punctata      
Fabaceae Stylosanthes bojeri   Ankimpangamena  
Fabaceae Tamarindus indica Tamarind Kily  
Fabaceae Tephrosia linearis      
Fabaceae Tephrosia purpurea Wild indigo    
Fabaceae Tetrapterocarpon geayi   Vaovy endemic
Fabaceae Vaughania perrieri     endemic
Fabaceae Vigna reticulata   Mativelo  
Fabaceae Xanthocercis madagascariensis   Kolohoto endemic
Fabaceae Xylia madagascariensis   Araky endemic
Gentianaceae Enicostemma elisabethae      
Gentianaceae Swertia lubhaniana     endemic
Hernandiaceae Gyrocarpus americanus Propeller-tree or helicopter tree Mafay  
Hippocrateaceae Hippocratea madagascariensis   Vahipindy endemic
Icacinacea Apodytes dimidiata White pear Mampisaraka  
Kiggelariaceae Prockiopsis hildebrandtii   Maroampototsy endemic
Kirkiaceae Kirkia leandrii formerly Pleiokirkia leandrii   Mafaipoty locally endemic
Lamiaceae Clerodendrum cauliflorum     endemic
Lamiaceae Clerodendrum putrae   Vanginalika endemic
Lamiaceae Hyptis pectinata Comb hyptis Tsangatsangana-bilo  
Lamiaceae Lantana camara Common lantana or Big-sage Radriaka  
Lamiaceae Leonotis nepetaefolia Lion's ears Kilanjalanja  
Lamiaceae Phyla nodiflora Round-leaved frogfruit Lamborohaka  
Lamiaceae Stachytarpheta jamaicensis Blue Porterweed Anantainakoho  
Lamiaceae Tetradenia fruticosa      
Lamiaceae Vitex beraviensis   Voamahy endemic
Lamiaceae Vitex leandrii   Voamahy endemic
Lamiaceae Cassytha filiformis Love-vine or Dodder laurel Tsihitafototsy  
Lamiaceae Cryptocarya perrieri     endemic
Lamiaceae Potameia madagascariensis     endemic
Lecythidaceae Foetida asymetrica   Menambaho endemic
Lecythidaceae Foetida retusa   Namolona endemic
Leeaceae Leea guineensis   Sadrakodraky  
Linaceae Hugonia longipes     endemic
Loganiaceae Buddleja madagascariensis Madagascar buddleia or Smokebush Seva-Sevafotsy endemic
Loganiaceae Monstuaea brunonis      
Loganiaceae Nuxia oppositifolia River nuxia Valagnira  
Loganiaceae Strychnos decussata   Hazomby endemic
Loganiaceae Strychnos henningsii Red bitterberry Tsivoanino endemic
Loganiaceae Strychnos madagascariensis Muquaqua Ampeny endemic
Loganiaceae Strychnos spinosa Spiny monkey orange Mokotra endemic
Loganiaceae Bakerella tricostata   Velomianto endemic
Lythraceae Rotala      
Lythraceae Woodfordia floribunda   Lambohenjana  
Lythraceae Woodfordia fruticosa   Lambohenja  
Malpighaceae Acridocarpus excelsus ssp. bojeri   Matalajy endemic
Malvaceae Abelmoschus moschatus Abelmosk Sikalenjindambo  
Malvaceae Adansonia madagascariensis Grey baobab Zà-Reniala endemic
Malvaceae Byttneria biloba   Volily endemic
Malvaceae Byttneria oligantha   Volily endemic
Malvaceae Ceiba pentandra Kapok tree Pamba-Kapoaka  
Malvaceae Corchorus trilocularis      
Malvaceae Dombeya albotomentosa   Hafotsy endemic
Malvaceae Grewia apetala     endemic
Malvaceae Grewia cloiselii     endemic
Malvaceae Grewia cyclea     endemic
Malvaceae Grewia glandulosa   Latabarika endemic
Malvaceae Grewia lavanalensis   Selimbazimba endemic
Malvaceae Grewia madagascariensis   Sely endemic
Malvaceae Grewia nucifera   Selindambo endemic
Malvaceae Grewia sp1   Mabolotsaky endemic
Malvaceae Grewia sp2   Selivoloa endemic
Malvaceae Grewia triflora   Sely  
Malvaceae Helmiopsiella madagascariensis   Selivato endemic
Malvaceae Hibiscus lobatus var lobatus   Jamalanjirika  
Malvaceae Hibiscus macrogonus   Alampo endemic
Malvaceae Hibiscus panduriformis   Mangily ankelika  
Malvaceae Hibiscus thespesianus   Alampo endemic
Malvaceae Hibiscus diversifolius Swamp hibiscus    
Malvaceae Hildegardia erythrosiphon   Vinoa endemic
Malvaceae Jumelleanthus perrieri     endemic
Malvaceae Melochia corchorifolia Chocolateweed    
Malvaceae Nesogordonia abrahamii     endemic
Malvaceae Nesogordonia humbertii   Ambay endemic
Malvaceae Pavonia urens   Mangily ankelika  
Malvaceae Perrierophytum paniculatum     locally endemic
Malvaceae Pseudocorchorus danguyanus      
Malvaceae Pseudocorchorus mammilatus      
Malvaceae Sida acuta Spinyhead sida or Common wireweed    
Malvaceae Sida rhombifolia Cuban jute or Arrowleaf sida Mandravasarota  
Malvaceae Sterculia tavia   Tavia endemic
Malvaceae Urena lobata var sinula Caesar weed Kisalenjy  
Malvaceae Waltheria indica Sleepy morning Tsindahoro  
Melastomataceae Dionycha     endemic
Melastomataceae Memecylon minimifolium   Arivoravy endemic
Meliaceae Cipadessa boiviniana   Ampoly endemic
Meliaceae Khaya madagascariensis   Hazomena endemic
Meliaceae Malleastrum antsingyense   Ampolindrano locally endemic
Meliaceae Malleastrum gracile   Manamora endemic
Meliaceae Neobeguea leandriana   Tsingena endemic
Meliaceae Trichilia      
Meliaceae Turrae grandidieri     endemic
Meliaceae Turraea bemarana     locally endemic
Meliaceae Turraea cf sakalavarum   Handy locally endemic
Meliaceae Turraea lycioides     endemic
Meliaceae Turraea sericea   Tsakafary endemic
Menispermaceae Anisocycleia grandidieri      
Menispermaceae Cissampelos pareira Velvetleaf Sagnatry endemic
Menispermaceae Raptonema      
Menispermaceae Triclesia   Tokambahitra  
Montiniaceae Grevea madagascariensis   Poapoalahy endemic
Moraceae Bleekrodea madagascariensis   Tsilita endemic
Moraceae Broussonetia greveanus   Vory endemic
Moraceae Dorstenia cuspidata     endemic
Moraceae Ficus baronii   Nonoky endemic
Moraceae Ficus brachyclada     endemic
Moraceae Ficus coccufolia   Adabo endemic
Moraceae Ficus grevei     endemic
Moraceae Ficus marmorata     endemic
Moraceae Ficus megapoda   Adabo endemic
Moraceae Ficus melleri     endemic
Moraceae Ficus pachyclada     endemic
Moraceae Ficus polyphleibia     endemic
Moraceae Ficus pyrifolia     endemic
Moraceae Treculia perrieri   Foza-Tsitipahy  
Moraceae Trilepisium madagascariense Urnfig or False-fig Lonjo  
Moraceae Trophis occidentalis   Andraramo endemic
Myrsinaceae Oncostemum andreanae   Hazontoho endemic
Myrsinaceae Oncostemum nervosum   Hazontoho endemic
Myrtaceae Eugenia jambolana   Roitra  
Myrtaceae Eugenia philliioides     endemic
Myrtaceae Eugenia tropophylla     endemic
Myrtaceae Psidium guajava Common guava Goavy  
Myrtaceae Syzygium sakalavarum   Rotsiala endemic
Nyctaginaceae Boerhaavia diffusa      
Ochnaceae Ochna baroni   Boramena endemic
Ochnaceae Ochna greveanum   Boramena endemic
Ochnaceae Ochna pervilleanum   Boramena endemic
Oenotheraceae Ludwigia octovalvis Mexican primrose-willow Bonaky  
Oenotheraceae Ludwigia perennis   Mandalia  
Oenotheraceae Ludwigia stolonifera      
Olacaceae Anacalosa pervilleana   Tanjaky endemic
Olacaceae Olax andronensis   Magnarimbita endemic
Olacaceae Olax dissitiflora     endemic
Olacaceae Olax lanceolata   Ambiotsy endemic
Olacaceae Chionanthus tropophylla var 1   Tsilaitsy hazo endemic
Olacaceae Chionanthus tropophylla var 2   Tsilaiby endemic
Olacaceae Comoranthus madagascariensis   Vavaloza endemic
Olacaceae Jasminum nervosum formerly Jasminum elegans   Takasy  
Olacaceae Jasminum pteropodum      
Olacaceae Noronhia alleizettei   Tsilaitsy endemic
Olacaceae Noronhia boinensis   Tsilaitsy endemic
Olacaceae Noronhia grandifolia   Vavaloza endemic
Olacaceae Noronhia incurvifolia   Vagno endemic
Passifloraceae Adenia densiflora   Lantaja endemic
Passifloraceae Adenia firingalavensis   Lokoranga endemic
Passifloraceae Adenia olaboensis   Olaboay endemic
Passifloraceae Adenia perrieri     endemic
Pedaliaceae Uncarina sakalava   Farehitsy endemic
Physenaceae Physena sessiliflora   Resonjo endemic
Polygalaceae Polygala peplis     endemic
Polygalaceae Polygonum glabrum   Tranokapiky  
Polygalaceae Polygonum mite      
Pontederiaceae Eichornia crassipes Common water hyacinth    
Renonculaceae Clematis ibarensis   Vahivoraka endemic
Rhamnaceae Berchemia discolor Brown ivory Tsiandala  
Rhamnaceae Colubrina decipiens   Tratramborondreo endemic
Rhamnaceae Gouania lasciflora   Vahifoty endemic
Rhamnaceae Gouania lineata   Vahifoty endemic
Rhamnaceae Lasciodiscus pervillei     endemic
Rhamnaceae Scutia myrtina      
Rhamnaceae Ziziphus jujuba Jujube Mokonazy  
Rhamnaceae Ziziphus vulgaris   Mokonazy  
Rubiaceae Borreria stricta   Rehilahy  
Rubiaceae Breonadia salicina formerly Breonadia microcephala Matumi Sohihy  
Rubiaceae Breonia perrieri   Berindry-Valotsy endemic
Rubiaceae Canthium   Fatikahitsy  
Rubiaceae Coffea antsingyensis   Taolankena locally endemic
Rubiaceae Coffea labatii     locally endemic
Rubiaceae Coffea moratii     locally endemic
Rubiaceae Gardenia rutembergiana   Mokombe  
Rubiaceae Gardenia sp   Mokombe endemic
Rubiaceae Gardenia squamifera   Voafotaky  
Rubiaceae Hymenodictyon leandri   Maroserana-Beholitse  
Rubiaceae Ixora microphylla      
Rubiaceae Mitracarpus hirtus formerly Mitracarpus villosus      
Rubiaceae Oldenlandia lancifolia   Ahibitsika  
Rubiaceae Ourouparia madagascariensis   Oroparia endemic
Rubiaceae Paederia farinosa farinosa formerly Paederia grevei   Vahimantsy  
Rubiaceae Pentas mussaendoides   Sompatra endemic
Rubiaceae Polysphaeria congesta   Taolankena  
Rubiaceae Psychotria apoda      
Rubiaceae Psychotria parkeri      
Rubiaceae Pyrostria horridum   Tandriadritsy-Taboriposa  
Rubiaceae Rothmannia menabeensis     endemic
Rubiaceae Rothmannia tropophylla      
Rubiaceae Rothmannia microcephala      
Rubiaceae Spermacoce brevisseti      
Rubiaceae Tarenna calyculatum      
Rubiaceae Tarenna madagascariensis   Masonjoany endemic
Rubiaceae Tarenna priunosum      
Rubiaceae Tarenna retusum      
Rutaceae Cedrelopsis gracilis   Mampandry endemic
Rutaceae Cedrelopsis grevei Katrafay or Kathrafay Katrafay endemic
Rutaceae Citrus aurantium Bitter orange Tsilanitafika  
Rutaceae Citrus sp   Tsoahazo  
Rutaceae Fagaropsis glabra     endemic
Rutaceae Melicope menabeensis      
Rutaceae Vepris perrieri   Ampolifanala  
Rutaceae Vepris pervicalyx   Fanala endemic
Rutaceae Zanthoxylum tsihanimposa   Monongo-Hazobe endemic
Salicaceae Bivinia jalberti Cobweb-seed Hazoambo endemic
Salicaceae Calantica cerasifolia   Hazonteva endemic
Salicaceae Flacourtia indica formerly Flacourtia ramontchi Governors-plum Lamoty endemic
Salicaceae Homalium albiflorum   Hazoambo endemic
Salicaceae Homalium nudiflorum   Hazoambo endemic
Salicaceae Ludia ludiaefolia     endemic
Salicaceae Tisonia leandriana   Tratramborondreo endemic
Salvadoraceae Salvadora angustifolia   Sasavy-Tantsy endemic
Sapindaceae Allophyllus arborescens      
Sapindaceae Allophylus cobbe     endemic
Sapindaceae Doratoxylon chouxii   Tsengena endemic
Sapindaceae Erythrophysa lapiazicola     endemic
Sapindaceae Filicium longifolium     endemic
Sapindaceae Glenniapervillei   Fihoza endemic
Sapindaceae Macphersonia gracilis   Tsingena endemic
Sapindaceae Paullinia pinnata   Famehivala  
Sapindaceae Plagioscyphus humbertii     endemic
Sapindaceae Pseudopteris ankaranensis     endemic
Sapindaceae Stadmannia leandrii     endemic
Sapindaceae Tina chapeleriana   Tsilaiby endemic
Sapindaceae Tina isaloensis     endemic
Sapindaceae Tina striata      
Sapindaceae Tsingya bemarana     locally endemic
Sapindaceae Zanha suaveolens   Savonihazo endemic
Sapotaceae Capurodendron greveanum   Kironono endemic
Sapotaceae Capurodendron rubrocostatum   Kironono endemic
Sapotaceae Capurodendron sakalavarum   Nanto endemic
Sapotaceae Labramia ankaranaensis antsingyense   Kironono-Nanto endemic
Sapotaceae Sideroxylon sascorum   Kironono-Nanto endemic
Scrophulariaceae Buchnera hispida      
Scrophulariaceae Scoparia dulcis Licorice weed or Scoparia weed Famafantsambo  
Scrophulariaceae Torenia sp Wishbone flower    
Solanaceae Capsicum annuum Chilli Pepper Sakay pilo  
Solanaceae Capsicum minimum   Pilipily  
Solanaceae Nicandra physalodes Apple-of-Peru    
Solanaceae Physalis peruviana Cape-gooseberry or Physalis Voanantsindrana  
Sphaerosepalaceae Rhopalocarpus lucidus   Talafoty endemic
Sphaerosepalaceae Rhopalocarpus macrorhamnifolius   Rengitra endemic
Thymeleaceae Stephanodaphne cremostachya   Soahazo endemic
Thymeleaceae Stephanodaphne pulchra     endemic
Turneraceae Erblichia antsingyae     locally endemic
Urticaceae Laportea perrieri     endemic
Urticaceae Obetia radula   Miha  
Urticaceae Urera caracasana formerly Urera acuminata     endemic
Velloziaceae Xerophyta lapiazicola      
Violaceae Hybanthus heterophyllus   Laifotsy  
Violaceae Rinorea arborea   Hazompasy endemic
Violaceae Rinorea auriculata     endemic
Violaceae Rinorea greveana   Tsimpidika endemic
Violaceae Rinorea ilicifolia   Rehampy endemic
Violaceae Rinorea pauciflora     endemic
Vitaceae Cissus auricoma      
Vitaceae Cissus microdonta   Tontongatra locally endemic
Vitaceae Cissus rhodotricha   Nonotandraky endemic
Vitaceae Cyphostelma laza   Laza endemic
Vitaceae Cyphostemma roseiglandulosa     endemic
Vitaceae Cyphostemma sakalavensis      

Pteridophytes (vascular plants which reproduce via spores)

Family Scientific name English name Malagasy name Endemicity
Equisetaceae Equisetum ramosissimum Branched horsetail Kitohitohy  
Ophioglossaceae Ophioglossum reticulatum Stalked adder's-tongue Tokatsofina  
Polypodiaceae Adiantum incisum   Ampangambato  
Polypodiaceae Asplenium blastophorum      
Polypodiaceae Elaphoglossum sp      
Polypodiaceae Microgramma mauritiana   Tratrantrambo  
Polypodiaceae Microsorum leandrianum     locally endemic
Polypodiaceae Microsorum polycarpon      
Polypodiaceae Nephrolepis undulata      
Polypodiaceae Pellae angulosa      
Polypodiaceae Platycerium quadridichotomum      
Polypodiaceae Pleopeltis excavata   Tratrantrambo  
Polypodiaceae Psammiosaurus paucivenius     endemic
Schizeaceae Lygodium kerstenii      
Selaginellaceae Selaginella bemaraensis   Tanatandraky locally endemic
Selaginellaceae Selaginella helicoclada      

Monocotyledons (flowering plants which seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf)

Family Scientific name English name Malagasy name Endemicity
Aponogetonaceae Aponogeton fenestralis   Tsiambaravaly endemic
Araceae Amorphophallus antsingyensis   Tavolondolo locally endemic
Araceae Pothos scandens   Ranvao  
Arecaceae Bismarckia nobilis Bismarck palm Mokoty endemic
Arecaceae Borassus madagascariensis   Dimaky endemic
Arecaceae Dypsis madagascariensis   Banty endemic
Arecaceae Elaeis guineensis var madagascariensis   Tsingilo endemic
Arecaceae Hyphaene coriacea Ilala palm Satra-Melaky  
Arecaceae Phoenix reclinata Reclining date palm Kalalo  
Arecaceae Raphia farinifera   Rofia  
Arecaceae Ravenea sambiranensis   Hovomantsina endemic
Bambusae Nastus sp   Kilalandy  
Commelinaceae Coleotrype goudotii   Sofinakangakel  
Commelinaceae Coleotrype lutea      
Commelinaceae Commelina madagascarica   Sofinakanga  
Commelinaceae Commelina benghalensis Tropical spiderwort or Benghal Dayflower Sofinakanga  
Commelinaceae Floscopa glomerata      
Convallariaceae Dracaena reflexa Song of India or Pleomele Tavy endemic
Convallariaceae Dracaena xiphophylla   Tavy endemic
Cyperaceae Cyperus aequalis   Tongolondranto-Volodia  
Cyperaceae Cyperus alterniflorus formerly Cyperus alternifolius   Vinda  
Cyperaceae Cyperus anceps   Vazahakely  
Cyperaceae Cyperus articulatus Jointed flatsedge Mito-Mita  
Cyperaceae Cyperus cancrorum   Zozorompoza-Horefo endemic
Cyperaceae Cyperus difformis Variable flatsedge or Smallflower umbrella-sedge Beandoha  
Cyperaceae Cyperus dives   Kiherahera-Herana  
Cyperaceae Cyperus latifolius      
Cyperaceae Cyperus madagascariensis   Herana  
Cyperaceae Cyperus obtusiflorus   Fitihizambalala  
Cyperaceae Cyperus tuberosus   Tsingetsentsy lahy  
Cyperaceae Fimbristylis cancellata     endemic
Cyperaceae Fimbristylis complanata      
Cyperaceae Fimbristylis diphylla      
Cyperaceae Fimbristylis subumbellata      
Cyperaceae Fuirena quercina   Herahera  
Cyperaceae Fuirena umbellata   Vendra-Vendramalomona  
Cyperaceae Cyperus erectus formerly Kyllinga erecta      
Cyperaceae Kyllingia odorata      
Cyperaceae Kyllingia sp   Beloha  
Cyperaceae Lipocarpha argentea      
Cyperaceae Mariscus albescens   Kiherahera mavo  
Cyperaceae Mariscus siesberianus      
Cyperaceae Pycreus alleizettei   Tsingetsihetsy vavy endemic
Cyperaceae Pycreus mundii formerly Pycreus mundtii   Ahibita  
Cyperaceae Pycreus vicinus     endemic
Cyperaceae Rhynchospora candida      
Cyperaceae Scirpus juncoides   Hazondrano  
Cyperaceae Scleria hildebrandtii   Vendrana  
Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea antaly   Antaly endemic
Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea bemarivensis   Elakelaka endemic
Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea heteropoda   Tanimabe endemic
Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea macabiha   Makabiha-Oviala endemic
Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea maciba   Oviala endemic
Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea oviala   Oviala endemic
Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea quartiniana      
Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea sansibarensis Zanzibar jam Takifoka endemic
Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea soso   Sosa endemic
Flagellariaceae Flagellaria indica Bush cane Viky  
Iridaceae Gladiolus garnieri     endemic
Liliaceae Aloe sp Aloe    
Liliaceae Anthericum parkeri   Akatanomby endemic
Liliaceae Asparagus madecassus   Fantsikakoholahy endemic
Liliaceae Asparagus vaginielltus   Rohimbiky endemic
Liliaceae Gloriosa virescens Flame lily Sakavironala  
Liliaceae Herreriopsis elegans   Avetro endemic
Liliaceae Lomatophyllum antsingyense     locally endemic
Liliaceae Rhodocodon calcicolus     endemic
Musaceae Musa × paradisiaca Banana Kida  
Musaceae Musa perrieri   Kidaala locally endemic
Nympheaceae Hydrocotyle sp      
Nympheaceae Nymphaea stellata or Nymphaea nouchali Red and blue water lily    
Orchidaceae Acampe renschiana   Kisatrasatra  
Orchidaceae Aeranthes tricalcarata     endemic
Orchidaceae Angraecum eburneum Ivory-colored angraecum    
Orchidaceae Bulbophyllum hildebrandtii     endemic
Orchidaceae Bulbophyllum nitens     endemic
Orchidaceae Cynorkis gigas     endemic
Orchidaceae Disperis majungensis     endemic
Orchidaceae Jumellea brachypteras     endemic
Orchidaceae Jumellea gracilipes     endemic
Orchidaceae Liparis jumelleana     endemic
Orchidaceae Lissochilus beravensis     endemic
Orchidaceae Lissochilus ibityensis     endemic
Orchidaceae Lissochilus petiolatus     endemic
Orchidaceae Lissochilus schlechterii     endemic
Orchidaceae Microcoelia cornuta     endemic
Orchidaceae Nervilia dalbergiae      
Orchidaceae Nervilia leguminosarum     endemic
Orchidaceae Nervilia sakoe      
Orchidaceae Oeceoclades boinensis     endemic
Orchidaceae Oeceoclades decaryana      
Orchidaceae Oeceoclades pandurata     endemic
Orchidaceae Eulophia pulchra formerly Oeceoclades pulchra      
Orchidaceae Oeceoclades gracillima or Oeceoclades roseovariegata     endemic
Orchidaceae Oeceoclades spathulifera     endemic
Orchidaceae Satyrium amoenum     endemic
Orchidaceae Sobennikoffia robusta   Kisatrasatra endemic
Orchidaceae Solenangia cornuta      
Orchidaceae Vanilla madagascariensis Vanilla Vahinamalona endemic
Orchidaceae Vanilla perrieri Vanilla Vahinamalona endemic
Pandanaceae Pandanus membranaceus      
Pandanaceae Pandanus pristis   Fandra endemic
Pandanaceae Pandanus stellatus   Fandra endemic
Pandanaceae Pandanus variabile   Fandra  
Poaceae Aristida barbicollis   Paipaika endemic
Poaceae Aristida congesta   Paipaika endemic
Poaceae Aristida rufescens   Paipaika endemic
Poaceae Bothriochloa glabra   Mafiloha  
Poaceae Brachiaria nana      
Poaceae Chloris barbata Finger grass    
Poaceae Chrysopogon serrulatus   Ahitrombilahy  
Poaceae Crypsis schoenoides Swamp pricklegrass    
Poaceae Cynodon arcuatus      
Poaceae Cynodon dactylon Bermuda grass Mandavohita  
Poaceae Dactyloctenium aegyptium Durban crowfoot or Coast button grass Tranondalitra  
Poaceae Digitaria biformis   Ahipody-Ahidahy  
Poaceae Digitaria debilis      
Poaceae Digitaria longiflora      
Poaceae Echinochloa colona formerly Echinochloa colonum Shama millet or Awnless barnyard grass Ahidrano  
Poaceae Eleusine indica Goose grass or Crowfootgras Tsipipihina  
Poaceae Eragrostis boinensis     endemic
Poaceae Eragrostis chapelieri      
Poaceae Eragrostis ciliaris   Ahipody  
Poaceae Eragrostis tenella   Ahipody  
Poaceae Fimbristylis ferruginea Rusty sedge and West Indian fimbry    
Poaceae Heteropogon contortus Black speargrass and Tanglehead Danga-Ahidambo  
Poaceae Hyparrhenia cymbaria   Fantakafotsy  
Poaceae Hyparrhenia hirta Common thatching grass Akatambaliha  
Poaceae Hyparrhenia rufa Giant thatching grass Akatatafika-Vero  
Poaceae Hyperthelia dissoluta Yellow thatching grass    
Poaceae Imperata cylindrica Cogon grass Tenina  
Poaceae Neyraudia madagascariensis   Fatakandahy endemic
Poaceae Olyra latifolia   Sarivoloando  
Poaceae Oplismenus burmannii Burmann's basketgrass    
Poaceae Oryza longistaminata Longstamen rice or Red rice Varindranahary  
Poaceae Oryza sativa Asian rice Vary  
Poaceae Panicum brevifolium   Ahipody  
Poaceae Panicum maximum Guineagrass or Green panic grass Fataka  
Poaceae Panicum pseudovoeltzkowii   Ahipody-Ahitoto endemic
Poaceae Panicum subalbidum   Famoa  
Poaceae Paspalum commersonii   Ahibivy  
Poaceae Paspalum polystachyum   Ahibivy  
Poaceae Pennisetum polystachyon   Rambonalika  
Poaceae Perotis latifolia      
Poaceae Phragmites mauritianus   Bararata-Voloando  
Poaceae Pogonarthria squarrosa Sickle grass or Cross grass Ahipody  
Poaceae Rottboellia exaltata Itch grass Tsanganday  
Poaceae Sacciolepis curvata   Ahidronono  
Poaceae Schizachyrium brevifolium   Ahitsorohitra  
Poaceae Setaria glauca Yellow foxtail Tsibolokaka  
Poaceae Setaria madecassa   Akatafotsy endemic
Poaceae Sorghum brevicarinatum   Bakaka  
Poaceae Sporobolus elatior   Matsia  
Poaceae Sporobolus festivus      
Poaceae Sporobolus indicus Smut grass Tsimatipanarivo  
Poaceae Sporobolus pyramidalis Giant ratstail grass Tsitorinampanarivo  
Poaceae Sporobolus sessiliflora      
Poaceae Themeda quadrivalvis Grader grass Akatavahiny  
Poaceae Trachypogon spicatus   Tsivongo  
Poaceae Urochloa mosambicensis      
Potamogetonaceae Potamogeton fluitans      
Strelitziaceae Ravenala madagascariensis Traveller's tree or Traveller's palm Ravinala endemic
Taccaceae Tacca pinnatifida   Tavolo-Kabija  
Typhaceae Typha angustifolia Narrow-leaved cattail or Lesser reedmace Vondro  
Zinziberaceae Aulotandra trigonocarpa     endemic


The Tsingy appear as true cathedrals of limestone, shaped by a very dense network of rifts, crevasses and surfaces of limestone blocks carved in blades or sharp needles. These limestone rocks, formed by a deposit of fossils and shells under the sea 200 million years ago, were subsequently shaped by rain 5 million years ago. Today, the Tsingy offer one of the most spectacular landscapes of Madagascar or the whole world.

Tickets, guides and entrance fees

The park office is located in Andadoany, near the ferry of the Manambolo river, 2km from Bekopaka (south of the park). Here one can find all information needed for a visit to the park, including tourist information, guides, park entrance fees and guide fees.

It is possible to pay directly on location for the services offered, including admission fee, guides and boat fees.

Another park entrance exists in the north in Antsalova, where also a reception desk can be found.

Bemaraha National Park has 23 independent guides and eight 8 park agents. The majority of the guides are affiliated to an association. All guides benefit from training sessions on guidance techniques, language improvement, geology, fauna and flora and customs and traditions.

As of 1st November 2015, Madagascar National Parks increased the entrance fee to the park. Foreign tourists pay now 55.000 Ariary for a day ticket, children 25.000 Ariary. Half of the entrance fees goes to Madagascar National Parks and half to local communities. Guides are obligatory. The fee for a guide depends on the chosen tour (circuit).

Circuits (tours)

There are several circuits leading through the Tsingy de Bemaraha National Park. Visitors can choose between easy, medium and sporty circuits.

Andadoany and Ankeligoa Circuit

Andadoany Circuit: Medium circuit including the crossing of labyrinths, 4 hours walk (2km).
Ankeligoa Circuit: Medium, 5 hours walk (6km).

What to see?
It is the ideal circuit to contemplate the magic of the Tsingy: you will move through canyons and labyrinths and have the opportunity to touch these extraordinary rock pinnacles.

Feel the emptiness throughout the ascent to the roof of the Tsingy. Admire the view from the gazebo onto the Tsingy and the various vegetations. Visit beautiful caves containing evidence of ancient human presence and showing the different forms of concretions.

Prices 2015
Andadoany Circuit: Guide 25,000 Ariary.
Ankeligoa Circuit: Guide 30,000 Ariary.
Andadoany and Ankeligoa Circuit: 40,000 Ariary.

Andamozavaky Circuit

Sporty circuit, 4 - 6 hours walk (4km).

What to see?
The main attractions are the panoramic view of the Tsingy, a suspension bridge and a wonderful sunset.

Prices 2015
Andamozavaky Circuit with sunset: Guide 60,000 Ariary.

Anjohimanitsy Circuit

Medium circuit, 1 day (5km).
Sporty, quite difficult circuit, 2 days (9km).

What to see?

Adventurous hike and discovery of the mysterious world of the Tsingy for one or two days (overnight camping in Ankidroadroa inside the park). The itinerary combines the Manambolo Circuit, Ankeligoa Circuit and Tantely Circuit.

Admire the different shapes of the Tsingy: gallery with concretion, limestone plateau, canyons, diaclases, cathedrals and underground caves as well as the Tsingy May (Tsingy with inverted shapes or slightly cracked skeletal limestone plateau). This circuit provides the opportunity to admire the different types of vegetation, humid in the canyons and dry on the limestone slabs, with the possibility to observe some lemurs and other animals.

Prices 2015
Medium circuit (1 day): Guide 36,000 Ariary.
Sporty circuit (2 days): Guide 20,000 Ariary for 1 person, guide 30,000 Ariary for 2 persons, guide 40,000 Ariary for 3-4 persons.

Manambolo circuit

Medium circuit, 3 hours by pirogue (6km).

What to see?

At this circuit in a pirogue you can see steep gorges of 50m to 80m in height, different types of vegetation, sub-humid dense forest, sparse xerophytic vegetation and semi-deciduous dry dense forest. You will visit caves with beautiful limestone formations. Enjoy the panoramic view of the Tsingy by walking back up the cliff. Various spots offer stunning views of the Manambolo River. You will also pass some Vazimba tombs.

Prices 2015
Manambolo Gorge (best time in the morning or afternoon): Guide 25,000 Ariary, pirogue 10,000 Ariary.
Manambolo Gorge and Ankeligoa Circuit: Guide 20,000 Ariary and 30,000 Ariary, pirogue 10,000 Ariary.

Manambolobe Circuit

Medium circuit, 1 day of walk (5km) or 2 days of walk (9km).

What to see?

Descent by rope into a limestone well and then progress through underground cavities. This adventure trip is a real discovery of the Tsingy mysteries, lemurs and the wet vegetation of dry canyons on limestone slabs.

Prices 2015
Guide: 50,000 Ariary, pirogue 15,000 Ariary.

Oliha Circuit (operated by Madcameleon)

Medium and difficult circuit, 8 hours.

What to see?
Complete tour that takes you to discover the natural pools, Vazimba tombs, the Tsingy and the Manambolo Gorge.

Prices 2015
Oliha Circuit 1 day: Guide 50 Euro to 95 Euro (depending on the number of participants), including park entrance fee, picnic lunch and canoe.
Oliha Circuit 2 days: Guide 90 Euro to 200 Euro (depending on the number of participants), including park entrance fee, breakfast, picnic lunch, canoe and overnight camping at Oliha Camp.

Berano Circuit

Medium circuit, 3 hours walk (3km).

What to see?
The Berano Circuit is a caving tour, starting at the northern entrance of the park in Antsalova. This circuit includes visits to underground galleries, canyons and different forms of caves with speleological tendency. You will pass the by kalanchoes decorated Tsingy May, followed by a pirogue crossing inside the galleries in the form of labyrinths. It will be a unique opportunity to observe the paleo gallery still in activity, embellished with vegetation of humid characteristics.

Prices 2015
Guide: 20,000 Ariary.

Ranotsara Circuit

Difficult circuit, 4 - 6 hours walk (3km).

What to see?
The Ranotsara Circuit starts 17km north of the village of Bekopaka and presents gigantic limestone cathedrals, deep cracks, limestone blocks carved in blades or sharp peaks constituting an immense field of Tsingy.

Tsingy de Bemaraha IMG 4792.jpg

Admire the 360° panoramic view from an elevated gazebo on the roof of the Tsingy. Feel the empty space crossing a 20m long and 70m deep suspension bridge. Walk in the middle of the Tsingy arcades and descent to the bottom of a canyon and forest tunnel. As the sun sets far away, another landscape appears formed by itself by the reflections of the sunset.

Prices 2015
Guide: 50,000 Ariary.

Tantely Circuit

Easy circuit, 1 hour walk (2km).

What to see?
This circuit is a test for visitors before tackling the more sporting circuits.

This hike allows to oberserve and admire the peculiarity of the Tsingy and its various endemic and non-endemic animal and plant species.

Prices 2015
Guide: 12,000 Ariary.

Tourist attractions in the region

In addition to the National Park area, the Bemaraha region has also other exciting sites of great biodiversity, offering unspoiled landscapes to discover. Located in the west of the region, these sites of biological and ecological interest make lovers of forests, lakes and still wild mangroves happy, especially ornithologists.

  • The RAMSAR site - the Manambolomaty complex

RAMSAR sites are wetlands of international importance with the aim to save and sensibly use wetlands and their resources. The Manambolomaty complex is one of three RAMSAR sites in Madagascar, formed by three large separate lakes: Befotaka, Soamalipo (Andranobe) and Ankerika. The complex is surrounded by forest (Tsimembo).

The complex offers the possibility to go canoeing and to discover the environment where birds such as grepe, Madagascar pond-heron and Knob-billed duck live in harmony with Nile crocodiles and the Madagascar fish eagle (Ankoay), a species with threatened status in Madagascar.

  • Lac Antsamaka

This lake is the most important bird watching spot in the region and a migration place of the wild pink flamingo (Samaka means "flamingo" in Malagasy). Other species living in colonies are herons (Lombokoma), egrets (Vano), Bernier's teals (Mireha) and White-backed ducks (Maheriloha).

  • Tsimembo forest

The Tsimembo forest covers an area of 30,000ha and borders the Andranobe lakeside complex. Visitors can discover the dry forest typical to the west with its 215 plant species and 80 bird species. With a bit of luck it is possible to see eight species of lemurs and the famous Fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox) in their natural environment.

  • Lac Bemamba

Another lake offering the possibility of canoe trips along the coast passing beautiful wild beaches lined with traditional fishing villages, or through labyrinths of reeds, water lilies and hyacinths while observing many waterbirds. Another canoe trip takes visitors in the 34km long mangroves of the Masoarivo estuary, discovering the adaption of the plants (pneumatophores, stilt roots) to this environment while observing unique birdlife.

  • Soatana village

Every Wednesday there is market day in Soatana, offering exotic fruits and vegetables as well as all kinds of useful things. A highlight of the market not to be missed is the Moraingy - a traditional Malagasy boxing event between neighbouring villages.

Habits and customs in the region

According to spoken tradition, as a result of struggles for land in the central highlands, the Sakalava fled to the great desert plains of the mid-west.
Ampelamana and his troop settled at the lakes of Bekopaka. They were named Vazimba an drano which can be translated as "Masters of the waters".
Andrianavoavo and his people took refuge in the Tsingy, they are called Vazimba an-tanety ("Masters of the land").
There are still descendants of these famous settlers who were divided into two clans.

  • Fiboahan-teraky - First release of a newborn. Ceremony that marks the first release of a newborn and its mother after the birth of the child. A celebration is organized for the occasion.
  • Tapakanaky - Circumcision. This is the act of removing the foreskin of boys and sometimes adolescent. This custom is practised almost all over Madagascar. According to the Sakalava belief, tapakanaky is the threshold that separates the child from the man. One can not call an uncircumcised male a man.
  • Lohavony - The lohavony is a ceremony to mark the first harvest. Lohavony means the first flowers/fruits. It is the time when agricultural products are tasted for the first time. But the peculiarity of the lohavony is that people also make an offer to the zanahary (god) and ancestors as well as to the water sources that feed the rice fields and to the mighty trees. These offerings are usually white rice and honey. Requests for blessings are also made during these times.
  • Roba-trano - The final farewell to a deceased person. Roba-trano is a custom of the Vazimba an-drano (the Vazimba who live near a water-place) following the death of a person in their community. It is sort of the last farewell to a dead person. One year after the funeral a great ceremony takes place, which can last up to a week during which zebus are slaughtered to feed the guests, toaka gasy (locally distilled alcohol) flows combined with singing and dancing. The ceremony goes on throughout the day and night.
  • Moraingy - Kind of martial art, favorite distraction of the Sakalava, without any distinction of age or sex. In all customary circumstances, celebrations or funeral, moraingy is always practised. It takes place in an arena, with spectators and musical instruments (especially drums) to animate the fight. Unlike the moraingy of other regions, the version practised in the Bemaraha prohibits the fighters to kick. After several exchanges of punches and dodges, the judges put an end to the fight, generally without announcing a winner or looser.

Holy places

  • The Tsingy - A sacred place to the Sakalava, where they perform whorships and the tromba and tomb-fangatahana ceremony. According to local belief, the Tsingy are bursting with treasures, those of the first vazimbas.

Accommodation in the park

The Manambolo campsite is managed by the Tsingy de Bemaraha National Park. It provides camping equipment and guides. Another campsite is set up in Masoarivo. In the surroundings of the park there are various hotels, from basic to comfortable. It is also possible to stay in a village, enjoying the traditional warm welcome by the locals.

Map of Tsingy de Bemaraha National Park

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Additional information